A pasture is a piece of land used for grazing livestock, particularly cows, sheep, or horses. It is an area of grass or other vegetation cultivated or allowed to grow naturally to provide food for grazing animals. Pastures can vary from small plots of land to vast expanses of open grasslands or meadows.

Why Pasture?

Pasture is vital in supporting livestock production, promoting animal welfare, ensuring sustainable land use, providing economic opportunities for farmers and ranchers, and contributing to environmental conservation.

Pasture provides a natural source of food for grazing animals. The plants in the pasture are rich in nutrients, such as protein and fiber, which are essential for the growth, health, and productivity of animals. Grazing on pasture allows livestock to consume a diverse range of plant species, which can contribute to a well-balanced diet.

Grazing on pasture allows animals to engage in natural behaviors, such as grazing, walking, and socializing, which can contribute to their physical and mental well-being. Pasture provides a more natural environment for animals than confinement systems, which can help prevent health issues such as obesity, lameness, and stress.

Pasture can be a sustainable form of land use, as it allows for the utilization of land that may not be suitable for other types of agriculture, such as row cropping. Properly managed pasture can help improve soil health, prevent erosion, and promote biodiversity.

It can be used in rotational grazing systems, where animals are moved to different sections of the pasture to allow for rest and regrowth of vegetation, which can help maintain the land’s long-term productivity.

Pasture-based livestock production can be economically viable for farmers and ranchers. Grazing animals on pasture can reduce the feed cost, as animals can harvest their food from the land. Pasture-based systems can also reduce the need for expensive infrastructure associated with confinement systems, such as barns or feedlots.

Well-managed pastures can have environmental benefits, such as sequestering carbon, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving water quality. The dense root systems of pasture plants can improve soil structure and increase water infiltration, reducing runoff and erosion.

Grazing animals can also help control invasive plant species and promote the growth of native plants, which can contribute to biodiversity conservation.

How Much Pasture Do I Need?

The amount of pasture you need depends on several factors, including the number and type of animals you plan to graze, the climate and growing conditions in your region, and the management practices you intend to implement.

Different animals require different amounts of pasture per head. For example, cows generally require more pasture per head than sheep or goats. The number of animals also impacts pasture requirements. As a general rule of thumb, larger animals require more pasture per head than smaller animals.

The forage quality in your pasture also affects the amount of pasture you need. High-quality forage with a high nutrient content can support more animals per acre than low-quality forage. The type of forage you plan to grow, such as grasses, legumes, or a mix of both, can also impact the amount of pasture you need.

Your region’s climate and growing conditions, including factors such as rainfall, temperature, and soil fertility, can affect pasture growth rates and regrowth potential. In areas with lower rainfall or limited growing seasons, you may need more pasture per animal to ensure an adequate forage supply.

Your grazing management practices, such as rotational grazing or continuous grazing, can impact the amount of pasture you need.

Rotational grazing, where animals are moved between smaller paddocks, can allow for better pasture utilization and regrowth, potentially reducing the amount of pasture needed compared to continuous grazing, where animals have unrestricted access to larger areas.

As a rough estimate, a common rule of thumb is to provide 1 to 2 acres of pasture per cow-calf pair per year, depending on factors such as forage quality, climate, and grazing management.

It’s advisable to consult with a local agronomist or extension agent who can provide more specific recommendations based on your unique circumstances and management goals.

They can also help you calculate your carrying capacity and the number of animals your pasture can sustainably support.

Can I Graze Different Animals Together?

Grazing different animals together can be possible, depending on various factors such as the species of animals, their size, temperament, dietary requirements, and environmental conditions.

Not all animals are compatible for grazing together. Some animals may have different social structures, behaviors, and dietary needs that can result in conflicts or health issues when mixed.

For example, grazing cattle and horses can be feasible as they have similar grazing habits, but mixing cattle and sheep can be challenging due to differences in dietary requirements and grazing behaviors.

Animals of different sizes and temperaments can interact differently when grazed together. Large animals such as cows or horses may accidentally injure smaller animals like sheep or goats during grazing. Aggressive or territorial animals may also pose a risk to other animals when mixed.

Different animals have different dietary requirements, and grazing them together may result in imbalanced nutrition. Horses and cattle have different nutritional needs and may compete for grazing resources, leading to an inadequate diet for one or both species.

The environment in which animals are grazed together should be carefully considered. Factors such as pasture availability, water sources, shelter, and weather conditions can affect the compatibility of animals when grazed together.

Grazing different animals together requires careful monitoring and management to ensure their welfare and prevent conflicts.

Regular observation, providing adequate food, water, and shelter, and addressing potential issues is crucial to maintaining a harmonious grazing system.

How Do I Convert Woodland, or an Old Field, to a Productive Pasture?

Converting woodland or an old field into a productive pasture can be a rewarding process that involves several steps.

Start by assessing the site’s characteristics, such as soil type, drainage, slope, and sunlight availability. This will help you determine the site’s suitability for pasture and identify any potential issues that may need addressing.

If the site is covered with trees or dense vegetation, you’ll need to clear it to create space for pasture. Depending on the size of the area, this can be done manually with tools like chainsaws, brush cutters, and machetes or through mechanical methods like bulldozing or mowing. Comply with local regulations and obtain any necessary permits before clearing vegetation.

Once the vegetation is cleared, you’ll need to prepare the soil for the pasture. This may involve removing stumps, rocks, and other debris and tilling the soil to loosen it and promote better root growth.

Conduct a soil test to determine its nutrient content and pH level, and amend the soil with lime, fertilizer, or organic matter to create optimal growing conditions for pasture grasses.

Choose appropriate pasture grasses well-suited to your local climate, soil type, and intended use (e.g., grazing or hay production). Plant the grasses using appropriate seeding methods, such as broadcast seeding or drilling, and follow recommended seeding rates and depths. Provide adequate water and monitor the grasses for establishment and growth.

Develop a grazing plan considering stocking rate, rotation, and rest periods to prevent overgrazing, maintain soil health, and promote optimal grass growth.

Install fencing and water sources as needed to manage livestock grazing and monitor the pasture regularly for signs of degradation or erosion.

As the pasture establishes, be vigilant in managing weeds and controlling pests. This may involve mowing, herbicide application, biological control methods, or the manual removal of weeds. Follow recommended best management practices to minimize the use of chemicals and protect the environment.

Pasture management requires ongoing maintenance, including regular mowing or grazing, fertilization, soil testing, and monitoring for signs of soil erosion, compaction, or other issues. Adjust your management practices as needed to optimize pasture productivity and sustainability.

How do I improve the present mix of native grasses and weeds?

Improving the mix of native grasses and weeds in an area can be achieved through cultural practices and management techniques.

First, you need to identify the native grasses and weeds that are currently growing in the area. Understanding their growth habits, life cycles, and ecological characteristics can help you develop an effective management plan.

Assess the area’s environmental conditions, including factors such as soil type, sunlight exposure, drainage patterns, and water availability.

Native grasses and weeds have different requirements, so understanding the site conditions will help you make informed decisions about managing them.

Cultural practices like mowing, watering, and fertilizing can influence the growth of native grasses and weeds. Adjusting these practices to suit the needs of the desired native grasses can help them thrive and outcompete weeds.

For example, mowing at a higher height can promote the growth of native grasses, as they are typically adapted to taller heights compared to many common weeds.

While minimizing chemical use is often desirable in managing native grasses and weeds, selective herbicides can be used judiciously to target specific weed species without harming native grasses.

Consult with a qualified professional or local extension service to identify appropriate herbicides and application methods for your specific situation.

Planting native grasses can be an effective way to improve their presence in an area. Use locally adapted seed mixes of native grasses suitable for your site conditions. Planting during the appropriate season and following proper planting techniques can increase the establishment success of native grasses.

Regular monitoring and maintenance are essential for managing the mix of native grasses and weeds. Regularly inspect the site for changes in the plant community, including the emergence of new weed species, and take appropriate action promptly.

Adjust cultural practices as needed, and continue to support the growth of native grasses through proper management.

Consulting with a qualified professional or local extension service can provide valuable guidance and advice on managing the mix of native grasses and weeds in your specific area.

They can provide information on local regulations and the best management practices and help you develop a management plan tailored to your site’s needs.

What should I seed in pastures?

The choice of what to seed in pastures depends on several factors, including the climate, soil type, the intended use of the pasture, and available resources.


Grasses are the foundation of most pasture seed mixes. There are many grass species to choose from, including cool-season grasses like Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and timothy, as well as warm-season grasses like Bermuda grass, buffalo grass, and switchgrass.

The choice of grass species will depend on climate, intended use (grazing or hay production), and desired growth habits.


Legumes are another essential component of pasture seed mixes as they are nitrogen-fixing plants that can improve soil fertility and provide high-quality forage for grazing animals. Common pasture legume species include white clover, red clover, alfalfa, and birdsfoot trefoil.


Forbs are broadleaf plants that can add diversity to pasture stands and provide additional forage options for grazing animals. Pasture seed mixes often include forbs like chicory, plantain, and dandelion to give nutritional variety to grazing animals.


Brassica species, such as turnips and rape, are sometimes included in pasture seed mixes for their high nutritional value and ability to provide forage during cool seasons. They can be used as a temporary addition to a pasture rotation or as a cover crop for soil improvement.


Some pasture owners choose to seed wildflowers in their pastures for aesthetic purposes, to attract pollinators, or to provide additional forage for grazing animals. Common wildflower species for pastures include clover, yarrow, and milkweed.

What do I need to do to maintain my pastures?

Maintaining pastures is essential for livestock health and productivity and the land’s sustainability.

A rotational grazing system can help maintain pastures by preventing overgrazing and promoting even grazing. Rotate livestock to different sections of the pasture and allow sufficient time for the grass to recover before livestock return.

Allow pastures to rest and recover between grazing periods. Rest periods allow the grass to regrow, maintain its root system, and prevent soil compaction.

Regularly monitor pastures for weeds and pests and take appropriate action to control them. This may include mowing, spot spraying, or manual removal.

Test the soil to determine nutrient deficiencies and apply appropriate fertilizers to maintain optimal soil fertility. Consult with a local agricultural extension office for recommendations based on your specific location and pasture type.

Ensure adequate water sources are available for livestock in pastures. Installing troughs or providing access to natural water sources can prevent overgrazing around water sources and promote even grazing.

Implement measures to control soil erosion, such as establishing grassed waterways, installing sediment basins, and using contour plowing or strip cropping. These practices help prevent soil erosion and maintain healthy pastureland.

Regularly monitor the condition of pastures, including grass health, weed and pest populations, and soil fertility levels. Adjust management practices as needed based on observations and changes in conditions.

Maintain fences, gates, and other infrastructure in good condition to prevent escapes and ensure effective rotational grazing.

Avoid overstocking pastures, as it can lead to overgrazing and pasture degradation. Adjust stocking rates based on pasture conditions, forage availability, and weather conditions.

Develop a drought management plan that includes strategies such as reducing stocking rates, providing supplemental feed, and conserving water during dry periods.

How do I take soil and/or tissue tests?

Taking soil and tissue tests is essential in understanding your plants’ and soil’s composition and health. Here’s how you can go about it:

Soil Test

Identify the area of your garden or field that you want to test. Consider the plant type, soil type, and any problem areas you wish to investigate.

You will need a clean shovel, trowel, or soil auger for collecting samples. Ensure they are clean and free from contaminants to prevent contamination of the soil samples.

Dig a small hole or use the soil auger to collect a representative soil sample from the desired depth. Typically, samples are collected at a 6-8 inches depth for most agricultural crops. Take multiple samples from different locations within the chosen area to get a composite sample.

Combine the soil samples in a clean container and mix them thoroughly to create a homogenous sample. Remove any debris or stones. Allow the sample to air-dry if wet, but do not expose it to direct sunlight or high temperatures, as this can affect the test results.

Place the prepared soil sample in a clean, labeled plastic bag or container and send it to a reputable soil testing laboratory. Follow their instructions for submission, which may include providing information about the crop, field history, and desired tests.

The laboratory will analyze the sample and provide a detailed report of the soil’s nutrient levels, pH, and other important parameters.

Tissue Test

Identify the specific plant tissue you want to test, such as leaves, stems, or fruit. Choose healthy, representative plant parts free from diseases, pests, or physical damage.

You will need clean scissors or pruning shears, plastic bags or containers, and labels for collecting and labeling the tissue samples.

Cut a sufficient amount of plant tissue from the selected plant part. Be sure to collect samples from multiple plants to create a composite sample representing the entire area of interest.

Place the samples in clean plastic bags or containers, and label them with relevant information such as the plant type, plant part, and sampling date.

Keep the tissue samples cool and fresh during transport to prevent degradation of the samples. Store them in a cooler or refrigerator until they can be submitted to a laboratory for analysis.

Send the tissue samples to a reputable tissue testing laboratory following their instructions for submission. Provide information about the plant type, growth stage, and any specific tests you want to be performed.

The laboratory will analyze the tissue samples and provide you with a report detailing the nutrient levels, tissue analysis, and any recommendations for fertilization or corrective actions.

What is the best fence for pastures?

The best type of fence for pastures depends on the type of animals you are trying to contain, the size of your pasture, your budget, and your specific needs.

Wooden fences are a classic and aesthetically pleasing option for pastures. They are sturdy, durable, and provide good visibility for animals and humans. Wooden fences can be constructed using different styles, such as post-and-rail, board, or split rail, depending on your preferences and requirements.

High-tensile wire fences are known for their strength, durability, and low maintenance requirements. They typically consist of multiple strands of wire under high tension, making them effective for containing livestock. High-tensile wire fences are cost-effective and can be used for large and small pastures.

Electric fences use a mild electric shock to keep animals within the pasture. They are relatively inexpensive, easy to install, and can be used for temporary or permanent fencing. Electric fences are effective for containing most types of livestock but may require more maintenance and may not be suitable for all animals, such as those with thick woolly coats.

Vinyl or PVC fences are durable, low-maintenance, and visually appealing. They are resistant to rot, decay, and insects, making them a long-lasting pasture option. Vinyl or PVC fences come in various styles, including post-and-rail and board.

Woven wire fences, also known as horse fencing or deer fencing, are made of tightly woven wire mesh that provides a secure barrier for containing animals. They are typically used for containing horses, cattle, or deer and can be combined with other types of fencing, such as electric wires, for added effectiveness.

Pipe fences are made of steel pipes and are known for their strength and durability. They are suitable for containing large animals, such as cattle or bison, and can withstand harsh weather conditions. They can be expensive to install but are long-lasting and require minimal maintenance.

What else besides forage and fences does a pasture need?

A pasture requires various elements to ensure the animals’ well-being and the grazing area’s productivity. In addition to forage and fences, here are some other important considerations for managing a pasture:

Water Source

Animals need access to clean, fresh water at all times. A reliable water source such as a pond, stream, or trough should be available within the pasture to meet the hydration needs of the animals.


Providing adequate shelter is crucial for protecting animals from extreme weather conditions such as heat, cold, rain, or snow. Shelter options can include natural features like trees or artificial structures like barns, run-in sheds, or windbreaks.

Pasture Rotation and Management

Proper pasture management involves rotational grazing, which helps maintain healthy vegetation and prevents overgrazing.

Rotational grazing involves dividing the pasture into smaller sections and periodically rotating the animals to different sections to allow forage regrowth and prevent soil degradation.

Mineral Supplementation

Animals grazing on pasture may require additional mineral supplementation to ensure their nutritional needs are met.

Consult with a veterinarian or an animal nutritionist to determine the appropriate mineral supplements based on the specific needs of the animals and the quality of the forage available.

Pest Control

Pastures can be susceptible to pests such as parasites, flies, and ticks, which can negatively impact the health of the animals. Implementing pest control measures such as regular deworming, fly traps, or natural predators can help keep pests under control.

Fertilization and Weed Control

Proper fertilization and weed control can help maintain healthy pasture vegetation. Soil testing can be done to determine nutrient deficiencies and appropriate fertilization, and weed control measures such as mowing, herbicide application, or manual removal may be necessary to prevent invasive plant species from overtaking the pasture.

What is rotation grazing, and how do I do it?

Rotation grazing is a method of managing livestock by strategically moving them from one grazing area to another in a planned rotation.

This practice involves dividing a larger pasture or grazing area into smaller paddocks or sections and then moving the livestock to a new paddock after a certain period. The livestock grazes the vegetation in one paddock and then moves to the next, allowing the previously grazed paddock to recover and regenerate before the livestock return.

Keep in mind the following factors when practicing rotational grazes.

Determine the number of paddocks

Assess the size and carrying capacity of your grazing area and the number and type of livestock you have. Divide the grazing area into an appropriate number of paddocks based on the size of the site and the number of animals. Each paddock should have enough forage to sustain the livestock for the planned grazing period.

Plan the Rotation

Create a grazing plan that specifies the duration of time livestock will stay in each paddock, often referred to as the grazing period.

The duration of the grazing period will depend on factors such as the growth rate of the vegetation, weather conditions, and the type of livestock. Strike a balance allowing enough time for vegetation to recover and avoiding overgrazing.

Monitor and Manage

Regularly monitor the vegetation condition in each paddock and adjust the grazing period accordingly.

If the vegetation is being grazed down too much or showing signs of stress, it may be necessary to shorten the grazing period or move the livestock to the next paddock sooner. Conversely, if abundant forage is left uneaten, the grazing period can be extended to prevent wastage.

Provide water and shelter

Ensure that each paddock has access to clean water and appropriate shelter for the livestock. This may involve installing water troughs, providing natural water sources, and ensuring that there are trees, shrubs, or other forms of shelter in each paddock to protect the livestock from extreme weather conditions.

Maintain fencing and infrastructure

Regularly inspect and maintain the fencing and infrastructure within the rotational grazing system, such as gates, lanes, and water troughs, to ensure they are in good condition and functioning properly. This will help prevent livestock escape, reduce animal stress, and maintain effective rotational grazing.

How do I measure pasture yield?

Measuring pasture yield involves several methods, depending on the scale and accuracy required for your specific needs.

Visual Estimation

This is the simplest method, where you visually estimate the amount of forage in a pasture. You can use techniques such as the “Step-Point” or “Ocular Estimate” methods, where you take a set number of steps along a transect or use your judgment to estimate the amount of forage available in a given area. This method is quick and easy but may not be very accurate.

Clipping and Weighing

This method involves cutting a known pasture area, typically using a quadrat or a frame, and then drying and weighing the harvested forage to determine the dry matter yield. This method provides more accurate results but can be time-consuming and labor-intensive.

Pasture Plate Meter

This specialized instrument measures the height of forage above the ground using a plate with calibrated markings. By taking multiple readings across a pasture, you can estimate the average forage height, which can be used to calculate the forage yield. This method is relatively quick and provides a reasonably accurate estimate of forage yield.

Remote Sensing

Remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery or drones, can be used to estimate pasture yield. These methods involve analyzing images to determine the biomass of the vegetation, which can then be used to estimate the forage yield. Remote sensing can provide large-scale and timely data but may require specialized equipment and expertise.

Botanical Composition

Another method to estimate pasture yield is by identifying and measuring the abundance of different plant species in a pasture. By knowing the botanical composition, you can estimate the yield of each species and calculate the total forage yield. This method requires botanical knowledge and expertise in plant identification.

What about seasonal rotation with alternate forages?

Seasonal rotation with alternate forages is common in agriculture and animal husbandry. Different forage crops are planted and rotated in a field or pasture to optimize soil health, forage quality, and animal nutrition. This practice is also known as pasture rotation or crop rotation.

Seasonal rotation with alternate forages has several benefits. First, it helps maintain soil fertility by reducing nutrient depletion and promoting natural nutrient cycling. Different forage crops have different nutrient requirements and cycling patterns, so rotating them can help balance nutrient levels in the soil and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers.

Second, seasonal rotation with alternate forages can help control pests and diseases. By rotating different forage crops, farmers can disrupt the life cycles of pests and diseases specific to certain crops, reducing their buildup in the soil and minimizing the need for chemical pesticides.

Third, rotational grazing of livestock on different forage crops can help optimize animal nutrition. Different forage crops have varying nutritional profiles, and rotating them can provide a more diverse and balanced diet for livestock, leading to better health and performance.

Lastly, seasonal rotation with alternate forages can help extend the grazing season and provide more consistent forage availability for livestock.

By planting different forage crops with varying growth patterns and maturity dates, farmers can ensure a continuous supply of high-quality forage throughout the grazing season, reducing the need for supplementary feed and improving overall livestock management.

However, implementing seasonal rotation with alternate forages requires careful planning and management, including consideration of soil type, climate, forage species, and livestock requirements.

Proper monitoring and adaptation of the rotation plan may be needed based on specific local conditions. Consulting with agricultural experts or extension agents can provide valuable guidance for successfully implementing seasonal rotation with alternate forages.

How can I control weeds?

Controlling weeds in pastures is an integral part of pasture management to ensure the health and productivity of the grazing land for livestock.

Regular mowing or grazing can help control weeds by preventing them from flowering and setting seeds. Mowing or grazing should be done at the appropriate height for the desired pasture grasses and to avoid overgrazing, which can weaken the grass and create opportunities for weeds to establish.

Mechanical methods such as plowing, disking, or cultivating can be used to control weeds in pastures. These methods are effective for annual weeds but may not be as effective for perennial weeds with deep roots.

Herbicides can be used to control weeds in pastures. There are selective herbicides that target specific types of weeds while minimizing harm to desirable pasture grasses, and there are non-selective herbicides that can be used to control all types of weeds.

Follow label instructions and use herbicides safely and responsibly, considering factors such as wind direction, application rates, and potential effects on non-target plants and animals.

Some insects, animals, or microorganisms can be used as biological controls for specific weeds. For example, goats or sheep can be used to graze on certain types of weeds that are palatable to them, or insects can be released that feed on specific weed species.

However, biological control methods require careful consideration of the potential impacts on non-target plants and animals and should be used with caution.

Cultural practices such as improving soil fertility, maintaining proper grazing management, and promoting healthy pasture grasses can help prevent weed infestations by creating a competitive environment for weeds.

Using a combination of different methods, known as integrated weed management, can be the most effective approach for controlling weeds in pastures. This may include combining mowing or grazing, mechanical control, chemical control, biological control, and cultural practices tailored to the specific weed species and pasture conditions.

Are there any catches or disadvantages to pastures?

While pastures can be beneficial for various purposes, such as grazing livestock, providing habitat for wildlife, and supporting sustainable agriculture, there are also some potential catches or disadvantages to consider.

Pastures can be susceptible to overgrazing, which occurs when the grazing pressure exceeds the land’s carrying capacity. This can result in soil erosion, reduced plant productivity, and degradation of pasture quality. Overgrazing can also negatively impact wildlife habitat and biodiversity.

Pastures can be invaded by undesirable plant species, commonly known as weeds. Weeds can compete with desirable pasture plants for water, nutrients, and sunlight, reducing pasture productivity and quality.

Pastures require appropriate nutrient management to maintain their productivity. Nutrient imbalances or deficiencies can occur without proper management, leading to reduced forage quality and livestock health issues.

Nutrient management practices such as fertilization and soil testing may be necessary to maintain optimal pasture conditions.

Pastures can be susceptible to pests and diseases that can negatively impact plant health and productivity. Managing pests and diseases in pastures may require regular monitoring, the use of pesticides or other control methods, and proper pasture rotation to minimize the risk of outbreaks.

Pastures are exposed to weather and climate risks such as drought, flooding, extreme temperatures, and seasonal fluctuations. These can affect pasture productivity and quality and impact livestock health and welfare.

Managing pastures may require regular monitoring, maintenance, and planning to ensure optimal productivity and sustainability. This can include rotational grazing, weed control, fencing, and infrastructure maintenance, which may require time, effort, and financial resources.

Converting natural land to pastures for agricultural purposes can raise environmental concerns such as deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and impacts on water quality and quantity. Considering and addressing potential environmental impacts is crucial when establishing and managing pastures.

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